Kamis, 04 Mei 2017

Horrible weed or miracle herb? a review of Bidens pilosa.

A New member of your Asteraceae family, the particular weed Bidens pilosa Linn. is

found all through the world, most likely originating in South America. First

noted within Linneus's Species Plantarum (1753) (1), this weed has

acquired a variety of common names: cobblers pegs, grab-a-leg, Spanish

needles, pitchforks, stickybeak, hairy tickweed and lots of more. Any time it

was brought to Australia is actually unknown, but it is now prevalent inside the

Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland as well as New South Wales, and

is a main crop weed, outcompeting native species in tropical places (2).

B. pilosa is definitely an erect annual which grows for an typical height involving 60

cm even even though it can reach 2 m in favourable conditions. the leaves are

opposite and also split up into three to five lance-shaped segments with

serrated edges. Bright green whilst young, leaves may develop tinges o f

red and brown on maturity. Flowers are mostly yellow but could have got white

elements (ray florets) which could be existing regarding durations regarding the

flower's development. The Actual seeds are generally black or dark brown, slender

and concerning 1cm long, clustered about the finish with the stalk. they possess

three tiny prongs in 1 end, which usually adhere for you to garments along with animals(2).

There are numerous types of B. pilosa. One, B. pilosa Linn var.

radiata, that is seen in tropical America as well as Japan, may be analysed

and shown to always be able to include active constituents including flavonoids,

polyacetylenes, flavone glycosides, chalcones, aurones and

phenylpropanoids (3). B. pilosa additionally contains calcium, iron along with zinc, as

well as beta-carotene (4, 5).

Recent research is showing a beneficial side for you to this plant. S earches of

ProQuest, CINAHL, Wiley Interscience and PubMed databases confirmed a

number regarding papers observing significant wellness benefits of B. pilosa as a

botanical medicine. Extremely couple of in the papers about this herb concerned

testing on humans; the majority of used rodents or performed throughout vitro experiments

on cultured cell lines. This is actually obvious in which a sizable amount associated with research

remains to be performed on B. pilosa. This specific article will review fifteen

of the actual papers, examining the actual prospective health benefits coming from its use as a


B. pilosa continues for you to be utilized like a folk remedy within many third-world

countries pertaining to eons. Wounds, colds and flu, fever, hepatitis and

jaundice, glandular sclerosis, rheumatic conditions, neuralgia,

smallpox, colic, diarrhoea, diuretic, pain, snake bite, conjunctivitis,

anaemia, haemorrhage and rectal prolapse are just several associated with many

traditional utilizes involving this herb (4, six 8).

The physique of serious study on B. pilosa is continuing for you to grow more than the last

decade. Because the actual trend in the particular direction of evidence-based medicine became more

pronounced, research on this herb began as an try to validate its

traditional use. Throughout your process, a number of research has shown its

potential as the possible antimalarial (9, 10), anticancer (6, 11 13),

antidiabetic (14-17), anti-inflammatory and also antiallergy (3, 18, 19),

antihypertensive and also smooth muscle relaxant (7, 8),

antimicrobial/antiviral (including herpes) (20, 21), antipyretic (6),

oxytocic (22), and also nutritive (4, 5, 23). Because noted above, nearly all intensive

research about this herb is in its infancy, but these research h as revealed promise

for the use of B. pilosa like a achievable complement or perhaps alternative to

pharmaceutical drugs for your early stage involving many involving these conditions.


Malaria is actually a significant disease issue within many locations of the world.

Bidens spp are usually widespread in Brazil, where malaria parasites have

exhibited growing resistance to pharmaceutical drugs. B. pilosa has

been among probably the actual most promising along with potent botanical anti-malarials, with

a high rate involving reduction associated with parasitaemia throughout in vitro cultures of

Plasmodium falciparum, one with the most deadly malarial strain, also as other

less harmful forms of malaria(9). The later murine study confirmed this

effect inside vivo, with a reduction within parasitaemia associated with approximately 60% throughout mice

infected using P. berghei. Dosages offered had been 250 along with 500 mg/kg body

weight. Herb samples collected beneath various circumstances were also

tested, showing little variation within efficacy (10).


Cancer is another location where B. pilosa has shown promise,

specifically as an anti-angiogenic agent. B. pilosa Linn var. radiata

extract was utilized on a assortment of cultured cell lines. Your ethyl acetate

fraction was demonstrated to always be able to have a strong inhibitory impact about tube formation

and proliferation throughout human umbilical vein endothelium cells, along with the

authors conclude that this collection regarding analysis is extremely promising (13).

Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff was used within an throughout vitro

experiment upon 5 leukaemic cell lines. results had been dose-dependent,

but had been significant about most cell lines. Dosag es associated with 100, 250 and also 500

mcg/mL had been tested, using significant outcomes in almost all yet 1 series which

was just moderately affected inside comparison, but nonetheless showed any positive

effect. the authors suggest that metabolism throughout vivo might create more

active constituents, along with that will more analysis about the use associated with B. pilosa as a

leukaemia treatment method looks worthwhile (12).


Diabetes is however one disease exactly where B. pilosa can be among many plants that

has been employed like a folk remedy inside many elements of the world. a survey of

plants traditionally used in Trinidad along with Tobago discovered that B. pilosa

and Bidens alba were both widely used within the management of

hypertension and also diabetes (16).

There is great evidence for continuing study about B. pilosa throughout the

prevention and management of diabetes, each kinds I along with II. The murine

study printed inside 2000 found two polyacetylenic glucosides derived from

the aerial parts of B. pilosa, and administered in combination inside a 3:2

ratio was proven in order to possess a significant hypoglycaemic effect (17).

In an additional research involving its hypoglycaemic effects, an exam associated with normal

mice against experimental alloxan-diabetic mice (one team mild, the

other severe) employing a water ethanol extract associated with B. pilosa (whole plant)

showed significant hypoglycaemic outcomes within the regular and also mildly

diabetic mice, but absolutely no adjust within the severely diabetic group. the authors

suggest that insulin inside the body is required like a mediator pertaining to the

hypoglycaemic effects of the plant extract (14).

Cytopiloyne (a polyacetyleni c glucoside) continues in order to be discovered in order to prevent

type I diabetes inside non-obese diabetic mice (NOD), via modulation of

T cells. Specifically, it continues to be found in order to inhibit CD4+ T cells inside the

spleen and pancreatic lymph nodes of the NOD mice, leaving CD8+ T cells

untouched. Additionally, it suppresses differentiation associated with type 1 Th cells, and

promotes manufacture of type two Th cells. A Few throughout vitro experimentation

with these cell lines was carried out, which confirmed less promising

results than the in vivo experiments. Your authors note which cytopiloyne

works by means of any different mechanism than pharmaceutical drugs for type I

diabetes prevention, is way much less toxic, and fewer suppressive regarding the

immune system (15).


Inflammation is at the cause of many diseases, therefore offered B.

pilosa's wide used in folk medicine for a variety associated with illnesses, it

is not really shocking which studies are usually uncovering its anti-inflammatory

properties. research has become revealing modulation regarding numerous inflammatory

cytokines which usually activate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric

oxide synthase (iNOS). Ethyl caffeate, a phenolic compound isolated from

B. pilosa, was studied using mouse skin and in vitro cell lines, and

found in order to markedly suppress many of these cytokines, with significant

inhibition associated with COX-2 expression. The Actual manufacture of PGE2, the growth

promoting aspect in specific carcinoma cell lines plus a mediator of

inflammation had been in addition significantly inhibited by ethyl caffeate inside this

study (18).

Another study utilized normal human dermal fibroblasts to always be able to analyze the

effect regarding B. pilosa Linn. var radiata (aerial parts) next induction

of inflammation. B. pilosa was found to suppress COX-2 expression and

PGE2 production (3).


Many allergies occur through an inflammatory pathway, along with a

commercial product (ClearGuard[TM) offers now been produced, targeted at the

nasal allergy market. The idea contains B. pilosa, Cinnamomum cassia and

Malpighia glabra. a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled,

double-dummy, crossover, single-centre clinical research of twenty subjects

was made to assess your efficacy regarding ClearGuard[TM] with regard to allergy

symptoms. This specific trial had been sponsored by the producer of the product.

No adverse events were reported. B. pilosa was included within the

formula regarding its quercetin content, which may be proven for you to stabilise

mast cells a s well as basophils, decrease leukotriene synthesis and reduce the

release of histamine along along with other mediators. The Particular authors additionally referred to

the research previously quoted which usually examined the action regarding ethyl caffeate

on inflammatory cytokines. Your consequence of your trial had been that

ClearGuard[TM] has been shown to be safe along with at least as effective as the

pharmaceutical drug Loratadine (19).


B. pilosa has been employed being an antihypertensive throughout folk medicine,

and studies are now confirming its efficacy. 3 categories of rats

(normotensive, spontaneously hypertensive, and also salt-loaded hypertensive)

were anaesthetised as well as stabilised before the remedy invo lving B. pilosa was

administered. A Range Of dosages were tested. Almost All 3 teams registered a

significant reduction in blood pressure. the hypotensive exercise appears

in 2 successive phases. The initial is actually due, a minimal of partially, in order to the

effect of the extract about the cardiac pump efficiency, while the second

phase may be because of for you to both beta-receptor stimulation as well as muscarinic receptor-mediated vasodilation (8).

The herb has also been found to be the relaxant regarding smooth muscle. In

an in vitro study associated with tissue through male Wistar rat aortas which in fact had been

treated using norepinephrine and KCl, a new neutral leaf extract involving B. pilosa

was discovered to lessen the particular aorta resting tone, and inhibit KCl

contractions, demonstrating any vasodilatory action around the tissue (7).

Antimicrobial Action

B. pilosa may be found to possess potent antimicrobial effects,

including antiviral activity against kinds I along with II herpes simplex (HSV)

viruses. Throughout vitro experiments utilizing domestic hot water extracts of the herb

showed significant, dose-dependent outcomes against HSV. Measured against

Acyclovir, B. pilosa with 500 mcg/mL performed equally against HSV2.

Against HSV1, B. pilosa was more efficacious when compared with against HSV2, yet not

quite as potent as Acyclovir (20). This really is welcome, because the authors say

that extremely high dosages regarding the plant extract are well tolerated by simply human

cells. Acyclovir, on one other hand, could have got significant aspect effects

including gastrointestinal upset, headache, vertigo, arthralgia,

neurological reactions which includes convulsions, fatigue, fever, pruritus as well as other signs (24).

An within vitro research involving ten medicinal plants found in Colombian folk

medicine, which usually included B. pilosa, confirmed that herb had been active

against several strains associated with bacteria which includes Bacillus cereus and

Escherichia coli, outstripping the particular performance involving Gentamycin sulfate. It

was also active against Staphylococcus aureus (21).


It is distinct through these findings, despite the insufficient high-grade

human trials, that there is actually a good deal of guarantee for that use associated with B.

pilosa like a botanical medicine. However, just before herbalists locate and

experiment with this plant, it is advantageous to remember that B. pilosa is actually a

cadmium hyperaccumulator. in the research (which additionally included Matricaria

chamomilla) B. pilosa and B. frondosa were found to be excellent

environmental bioremediators associated with cadmium pollution (25), yet provides absolutely no known

human chelation effect. Therefore, selection and also harvesting involving plants

for medicinal use needs being meticulously considered, along with assayed if

there is actually any doubt as to its origins.


(1) Australian Plant Identify Index: Bidens pilosa. [cited 19 February

2009]; Accessible from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni?


(2) Bidens pilosa: Cobblers pegs. 2008 Sept 08 [cited 19 February

2009]; Weed Fact Sheet]. available from:

http://www.sutherland.nsw.gov.au/ssc/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentPersonal /Weed+Fact+2008+Cobblers+Pegs.pdf/$file/Weed+


(3) Yoshida N, Kanekura T, Higashi Y, Kanzaki T. Bidens pilosa

suppresses interleukin-1|3-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through

the inhibition involving mitogen activated protein kinases phosphorylation in

normal human dermal fibroblasts. Journal involving Dermatology.


(4) Benhura MAN, Chitsiku IC. The Particular extractable beta-carotene content

of Guku (Bidens pilosa) leaves following cooking, drying along with storage.

International Journal of Meals Science as well as Technology. 1997;32:495-500.

(5) Orech FO, Aagaard-Hansen J, Friis H. Ethnoecology of

traditional leafy greens with the Luo individuals of Bondo district,

western Kenya. International Journal of Meals Science as well as Technology.


(6) Sundararajan P, Dey A, Smith A, Doss AG, Rajappan M, Natarajan

S. Scientific studies of anticancer along with antipyretic exercise involving Bidens pilosa whole

plant. African Well Being Sciences. 2006;6(1):27-30.

(7) Nguelefack TB, Dimo T, Nguelefack Mbuyo EP, tan PV,

Rakotonirina SV, Kamanyi A. Relaxant results of the actual neutral extract of

the leaves involving Bidens pilosa Linn in isolated rat vascular smooth muscle.

Phytotheraphy Analysis 2005;19:207-210.

(8) Dimo T, Nguelefack TB, Suntan PV, Yewah MP, Dongo E, Rakotonirina

SV, et al. Achievable mechanisms of action in the neutral extract from

Bidens pilosa L. leaves about the cardiovascular system of anaesthetized

rats. Phytotheraphy research 2003;17:1135-1139.

(9) Krettli AU, Andrade-Neto VF, Brandao MGL, Ferrari WMS. The

search for manufacturer new antimalarial drugs through plants used to treat fever and

malaria or perhaps plants randomly selected: any review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz.


(10) Andrade-Neto VF, Brandao MGL, Oliviera FQ, Casali VWD, Njaine

B, Zalis MG, et al. Antimalarial activity involving Bidens pilosa L.

(Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected within various

localities or perhaps plants cultivated in humus soil. Phytotherapy Research


(11) Chiang L-C, Cheng H-W, Chen C-C, Lin C-C. Within vitro anti

leukemic and also antiviral actions involving traditionally employed medicinal plants

in Taiwan. The Particular American Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2004;32(5):695-704.

(12) Chang J-S, Chiang L-C, Chen C-C, Liu L-T, Wang K-C, Lin C-C.

Antileukemic Exercise involving Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sher ff and

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. American Journal involving Chinese Medicine


(13) Wu L-W, Chiang Y-M, Chuang H-C, Wang S-Y, Yang G-W, Chen Y-H,

et al. Polyacetylenes function as anti-angiogenic agents. Pharmaceutical

Research 2004;21(11):2112-2119.

(14) Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Florez-Saenz JL,

Aguirre-Garcia F. Investigation with the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts

of 4 Mexican medicinal plants throughout normal along with Alloxan-diabetic mice.

Phytotherapy Study 2002;16:383-386.

(15) Chang CL-T, Chang S-L, Lee Y-M, Chiang Y-M, Chuang D-Y, Kuo

H-K, et al. Cytopiloyne, any polyacetylenic glucoside, prevents kind 1

diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Journal regarding Immunology


(16) Lans CA. Ethnomedicines found in Trinidad along with Tobago for

urinary problems along with diab etes mellitus. Journal involving Ethnobiology and

Ethnomedicine 2006;2:45:1-11.

(17) Ubillas RP, Mendez CD, Jolad SD, Luo J, King SR, Carlson TJ,

et al. Antihyperglycemic acetylenic glucosides via Bidens pilosa.

Planta Medica 2000;66(1):82-3.

(18) Chiang Y-M, Lo C-P, Chen Y-P, Wang S-Y, Yang N-S, Kuo Y-H, et

al. Ethyl caffeate suppresses NF-kB activation as well as its downstream

inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2, and also PGE2 in vitro or in mouse skin.

British Journal of Pharmacology 2005;146:352-363.

(19) Corren J, Lemay M, Lin Y, Rozga L, Randolph RK. Clinical and

biochemical results of your mixture botanical item (ClearGuard[TM])

for allergy: any pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Nutrition Journal 2008;7:20:1-8.

(20) Chiang L-C, Chang J-S, Chen C-C, Ng L-T, Lin C-C. Anti-herpes

simplex virus activity associat ed with Bidens pilosa as well as Houttuynia cordata. The

American Journal regarding Chinese Medicine. 2003;31(3):355-362.

(21) Rojas JJ, Ochoa VJ, Ocampo SA, Munoz JF. Screening for

antimicrobial activity regarding ten medicinal plants utilized in Colombian

folkloric medicine: a achievable alternative in the treatment of

non-nosocomial infections. BMC Complementary and also Alternative Medicine.


(22) Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Makawiti DW, Oryem-Origa H, Odyek O,

Nganga J. The Particular oxytocic properties of Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem. and

Bidens pilosa L., traditionally used medicinal plants coming from western

Uganda. African Journal of Ecology. 2007;45 (Suppt 3):88-93.

(23) Orech FO, Christensen DL, Larsen T, Friis H, Aagaard-Hansen J,

Estambale BA. Mineral content associated with classic leafy veggies from

western Kenya. International J ournal involving food Sciences and Nutrition.


(24) Zovirax tablets. MIMS Australia. 45(4):295.

(25) Abe T, Fukami M, Ogasawara M. Cadmium accumulation in the

shoots as well as roots regarding 93 weed species. Soil Science along with Plant Nutrition.


Patrice Connelly B. Nat Therapies (SCU), Dip. Nutrition, is a

nutritionist, energetic healer and musician practising within Kilcoy, Qld.

PO Box 272, Kilcoy QLD 4515. telephone (07) 5422 0806.


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